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TEEZED PUBLISHING PLATFORM

 document management software

Teezed is a Research Consortium aimed at assisting students and researchers with their research by providing proper guidance and statistical solution. Our dream is to provide an information repository where students and researchers can obtain a copy of an already made project/research work (similar to their topic) to use as a guide for their own project/research work. It has been observed that project/research works by our students and researchers end up being piled up in the analogue library of their institutions where they are mishandled, unkept and eventually become unusable. In most cases, they get discarded to make room for new ones due to lack of space. At Teezed, we take advantage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to make sure these research/project works are stored in a permanent and more secured digital location where students/researchers can have access to it, because as the saying goes, “what I see I remember”, research has shown that when a student/researcher see and use a copy of their research topic as a guide, they stand the chance of being rewarded with a great and testable research work. If you are deficient in the art of research, we have 24/7 counsellors who are ready to provide guidance/counselling at no cost. We also run a professional and standard statistical analysis that can be defended anywhere.

HOW TO PUBLISH ARTICLE ON THIS WEBSITE

Article Publishing

To qualify as an independent author/researcher on this website, you must be a registered member or author. Follow these easy steps to register as an author or researcher.

  • Click on Create an account from the login menu
  • Fill in the required details and submit (Note the Username and Password you entered as you will need them to log in). You will be registered immediately as an Author
  • Log in with your username and Password
  • On the Main Menu Click on Publish Article
  • Fill in the title of the article in the title box (Leave the alias blank) and type or paste your article into the article box provided
  • Click on Save and you are good to go

NB: You stand a chance of being paid if you can publish a well research/Supervised Project Work. To publish and receive payment click here

Chapter One

1.0  Introduction

Poultry feed is food for farm poultry including chickens ducks, geese and other domestic birds Feed for poultry mostly consists of grain (Dietert et al., 1994). A portion of commercial feed, typically around a quarter, is known as bulk and is indigestible. The amount of bulk is referred to as bulk density (Maciomwski et al., 2004). The quantity of feed, and the nutritional requirements of the feed, depend on the weight and the age of the poultry as well as the season. Healthy poultry require a sufficient amount of protein and carbohydrates, along with the necessary vitamins, dietary minerals, and an adequate supply of water (WHO,2000). Certain diets also require the use of grit, tiny rocks such as pieces of granite, in the feed. (Jrit aids in digestion by grinding food as it passes through the gizzard (Maciorowski ci al., 2004). The feed must remain clean and dry; contaminated feed can infect poultry. Damp feed encourages fungal growth. Mycotoxin poisoning as an example is ‘one of the most common and certainly most underreported causes of toxicoses in poultry’ (Maciorowski et al., 2004). Diseases can be avoided with proper maintenance of the feed and feeder. For privately’ raised chickens, or chickens as pets feed can be delivered through jar, trough or tube feeders. The use of poultry feed can also be supplemented with food found through foraging. In industrial agriculture, machinery is used to automate the feeding process reducing the cost and increasing the scale of fanning.

In an effort to achieve rapid animal growth to meet the increasing demand for animal large quantities of nitrogenous waste fortified with other supplements such as spent grain cassava waste, hone meal etc. are compounded as animal feed, as one of the sources of microorganisms to animals. Specifically, some of the additives have been incriminated amongst the principal sources of bacteria of public health concern (Ogbulie and Okpokwasili 1998). Various types of farmed animal diseases such as diarrhoeal diseases like bacillary dysentery, amoebic dysentery, fowl cholerae etc., Salmonellosis, staphylococcosis, colibacillosis, erysipelas, listeriosis etc have been traced to the contamination of animal feed (Healing and Greenwood, 1991). A potential and more deadly hazard has been associated with the consumption ‘of microbial toxins of bacterial and fungal origin in feed (Gilbert, 1995). Studies elsewhere have associated some animal feeds with toxigenic strains of fungi and bacteria of public health concern (Bilgran-i et al, 1995; White and Torman, 1995). Considering the health hazard posed to animal/poultry and the unsuspecting consumers of such contaminated feeds and its overwhelming socioeconomic impact.

Plants are known to have beneficial activity of the therapeutic effect. The search for newer sources of antibiotics is a global challenge preoccupying research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and academia, since many infectious agents are becoming resistant to synthetic drugs (Latha and Kannabrian, 2006). Infectious diseases are the world’s major threat to human health and account for almost 50,000 deaths every day. The situation has further been complicated with the rapid development of multidrug resistance by microorganisms to the antimicrobial agents available. According to a research, there are 422,127 plant species growing on earth. Among them about 35, 000 to 70,000 plant species are used as medicinal plants. The medicinal value of plant lies in some chemical substances (Plant secondary metabolites) that produce specific biological action in the human body (Hassan et al., 2009). Therefore many studies and researches had been carried-out on the antimicrobial properties of many plants but for this study, the leaf, of Jatropha curcas hospital too-far and scent Ocimum gratissimum will be investigated to ascertain their effectiveness against the microorganisms isolated from poultry feed.

1.1  Aim of Research

This research is therefore designed to identify and characterize the bacterial and fungal in poultry feeds and antimicrobial effect on the isolates.

1.2 Objective of Research

  • To isolate and identify microorganisms associated with poultry feed
  • To determine antibiotics susceptibility profile of isolated organisms
  • To determine the efficacy of hospital too-far Jatropha curcas and scent Ocimum gratissimum

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