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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Punishment (also known as discipline or penalty) is the authoritative imposition of something undesirable or unpleasant on or the removal if something desirable or pleasant from a person in response to behaviour deemed unacceptable by an individual, group or other entity.

According to Skinner (1938) in a psychological perspective defined punishment as any change in human that occurs after a given behaviour or response which reduces the likelihood of that behaviour accruing again in the future. Bedua, (2010) define punishment as involving the imposition of something that is intended to be burdensome of painful on a supposed offender for a supposed crime by a person or body who claim the authority to do so.

During the first two decades of our post-independence era. It was a thing of joy a climax of glamour and concern among parents, caregiver that the children are well nurtured, disciplined both at home and in school. more care givers, parents who could not caution their children at home for offences committed by disciplining them, took the leverage by exerting such responsibility to the school where they will be punished before classmates, fellow students on the assembly ground such open humiliation before his/her co-students, classmates often with the erring student for unruly behaviour helps to erode such act of indiscipline from reoccurring, there are cases where in the village/community parents carried their children to the home of the teacher for discipline as a result of in subordination to their parents and elders in other to avoid the whip of the teacher was then seen as illegal parents, a disciplinarian this conditioning also help moderate students then to be obedient law abiding, respectful personnel or citizens.

But today, cases abound where parents violently accompany their children to school to bully and challenge the teacher, school authority on it’s power to punish their children for an offence committed. Most times the punished or their parents harass the teacher involved at home or in public gathering town. In the case of private they’ve been reports of parents treating on school authorities as a result of teachers disciplining their children. In some cases student are taken out from his/her present school to be admitted into another private school.

A case pointed out in apex nursery and primary school in Ethiope Local Government Area in Delta State, where a teacher was severely warned by his pupil parent and cautioned never to lay a finger on the child accept permitted to otherwise.

One then begin to wonder at these scene, whey children and parents alike resorts to such violent app on the teacher for effecting discipline on the purpose in while performing her duty in the school. Government and other relevant bodies have been too lenient and this does not help matters. It we be recalled that in the late 70s, military personnel were posted to schools to help effect discipline and contain any act of deviation. One then imagine the nature of discipline the school children will receive from a person trained under strict military condition.
The Government white paper on the use of punishment has not been made public. As a result of teacher who punishment to deter student from insubordinate and unruly behaviour becomes more confused as to what, when, and how punishment should be administered. The teacher in his use of discretion may be misinterpreted to have abused the use of punishment. How justifiable it is to say that the teacher in exercising this legitimate tight of punishing erring student abuse its genuine use. One wonder then, the limited and bounds of the teacher in exercising his power of punishment on an offending students. Since he is prone to lack by the punished and his presents in addition lacked proper government guideline and protection on the use of punishment.

Educationalist and indeed the general public are aware that unbridled person al freedom id not compatible with civilized life in any society. The society which house the school administrators so as to help reduce the rate of juvenile delinquency rather than being at conflict with school in other to better the society.

Statement of Problem

Discipline is pertinent as learning is in any society for it is the attribute of an educated man, as one who make accurate observation of data, one who abide by the set rules, values, and norms of a group or social. in recent years it has been observed with dismay that punishment which ought to serve as a means of position correction among student in schools have gradually fizzled down due to the society attract on the in plementers of punishment to this fall the of delinquency acts of subordination and of insubordination and lack of self-control is now spreading like pervading cyndrium not only in school system but also in the society at large. School over the years have tried to maintain discipline through the adoption of several psychosocial measures. One of which is outcome whether negative or positive is well known to the society.

One therefore consider the issue of punishment from various perspective and give attention to the types of punishment e.g. physical verbal concrete, etc. adopted by school authorities to bring about a desirable change in behaviour so as to foster and enhance teaching and learning.

Does these punishment negate the freedom of the students because its use has been abused how can punishment be carried out so that it will be in proportion to the offence committed?
Research Questions

  1. What are the uses and abuse of punishment in public and private schools in Ethiope East Local Government are of Delta State.
  2. What is the view of teachers on the abuse of punishment?
  3. Is there any difference between the opinion of male and female teachers on the use of punishment?
  4. Is there any difference between the view of male and female teachers on the use of punishment?
  5. Does experience play a role in the use of punishment?
  6. What can be done to improve on the adequate use of
    punishment?

Purpose of Study

The purpose of this research is

  1. To notify abreast teachers. administrators of public and private schools in Ethiope Local Government Area of Delta State on the uses and abuse of punishment when properly applied and not properly applied to achieve to designed objective
  2. To also guide teachers on how and when to apply strict disciplinary measures, knowing their extent and limit when effecting these measures. considering certain factor when dealing with pupil, e.g. age, health condition, physical fitness of the students/pupils, for this and many more will guide against the abuse of punishment, and effect the uses of punishment to achieve it designed purpose.

Significance of the Study

In this research work, it is expected that everybody
who goes through it would understand that for punishment to achieve its desired effect, there must be warm positive relationship between the punished and the agent of punishment, such punishment must be consistent all over the system for such familiar or similar offences.

Recognize that for punishment to have the desired or stated effect on the punished such punishment must be equal to the offence committed and will not hamper the relationship necessary for learning (Wilkin 1995).

Know how punishment should be utilized as a tool for good school management.

See how punishment could help in moulding the
behaviour of student so that he can be useful to himself,
parent/caregivers, government and the society at large.

Scope of the Study

This study was restricted to public and private primacy schools outside Ethiope Local Government Area in Delta State.
The scope would also focus on or possibly try to identify the nature or limit of the use and abuse of punishment.

Definition of Terms

A lot of ambiguities have emanated from several authorities. As such different meanings and interpretation have reiterated from the same word. To guide against such reoccurrence I wish in this research work to define certain terms or words.

  1. Punishment: this is the infliction of some pain, suffering, loss or social disability as a penalty on someone for an offence.
  2. Abuse of punishment: This is the act of putting punishment into wrong use or misuses of punishment for ill-treatment or use badly for the wrong intention.
  3. Discipline: This mean training the mind and body to be obedient and controlled by oneself, it’s a training of the mind and people to obey rules and a code of behaviour.
  4. Teacher: A teacher is a person trained in a recognized institution, employed in a pedagogic setting in order to make teaching and learning achieve it desired objectives, he is one who combine the home knowledge with ability to impart such knowledge in others.

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