Background to the Study
The idea of universal education was first noted in 1955 when the universal Primary education scheme was inaugurated by the government of western Nigeria. The Eastern Nigeria government launched its own universal primary education in 1957. In Northern Nigeria education was provided free by government in a bid to make children attend school (Adeyemi, 2007). Thus, at its onset, the universal primary education scheme had been taken by regional government. There was no Federal government intervention until 1976 when the universal primary education (U.P.E) was launched to cover the whole country.
Education is one vital instructions in development. According to the National Policy on Education (1998) “Education in Nigeria is an instrument “per excellence” for effecting National development certainly. What Nigeria in needs in this 21st century to turn her economy around is not extended primary or elementary education but a basic education programme that will ensure that every Nigerian youth on graduation is sufficiently equipped with knowledge, skills and experiences required for vital entry into one occupation in the world of work, whether college bound or not (Ayabolu, 2000). The universal basic education (UBE) programme of the Federal republic of Nigeria was however launched by President Olusegun Obasanjo 30th September 1999. The UBE programme as spelt out in the implementation guidelines, aims at achieving the following specific objectives:
Universal Basic Education is the transmission of fundamental knowledge to all facets of Nigerian society from generation. It has three main components Universal Basic and Education. Universal connotes a programme that is meant for all facets of the society, the rich, the poor, the physically fit and the disabled, the brilliant fit, the dull, the regular students and the dropouts including every other individual that is ready to acquire knowledge. The term “Basic” relates to the base, take off point, fundamental essential spring board, bottom line, they are required and of course expected it therefore shows that basic education is the starting point in the acquisition of knowledge. Without basic education, higher education cannot be acquired. It therefore implies that the basic education is mandatory which is essential for life. Enoch and Okpede (2000) described it as the form of education which is essential for life. They also saw UBE as the form of education which must equip an individual with necessary skills to survive in his environment. It should be a practical and functional education. The idea of education connotes transmission of knowledge from generation to generation. In the UBE programme, it is expected that theoretical and practical work or knowledge transmitted to learners in its simplistic form. This involves starting from the scratch and being able to carry the learner along. This education is the aggregate of all the process by which a child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviours, which are of positive value to the society in which he lives (Amuchic, Aotibe and Audu, 2015 in Fafunwa, 2015).
UBE by definition must provide minimum education citizen should have easy access to it and it should be free. In the implementation guideline for UBE there is a UBE commission which runs the affairs of the UBE. They also set up minimum standards of primary, junior secondary and adult literacy throughout Nigeria it is expected that stiff penalties should be imposed on person’s societies or institutions that prevent children adolescents and youths from benefiting from UBE (Adewole, 2000). UBE is also expected to provide basic education which is expected to be terminal. Such education (UBE is not meant to take care of the educational needs of young peoples and adults who have not had the opportunity to receive adequate schooling thus the UBE programme will include nomadic education, education of migrant fishermen, dropout, out of school children and adult education.
Since the UBE scheme include the Junior secondary schools, the National Policy on Education stipulated the objectives of junior secondary schools to include effective thinking, communication skills, making of relevant judgment, making the pupils a useful member of one’s family, understanding basic facts about health and sanitation, understanding and appreciating one’s role as a useful member of the country (Babalola, 2000). These objectives are more likely achieved in junior secondary schools than at the end of the six years primary school level. For UBE or any education programme or policy or innovation to be translated into reality and success, it must present the classroom. The heart of teaching. Teachers in our present day reality had they key thus, they can either unlock the classroom door for the programme, if they are well disposed to tend enthusiastic about it or slam the door against it, carrying on as if nothing has changed, no educational planner should underrate the teachers’ factor in any programme before it takes off (Ijaiya, 1997). There is great need therefore to carry out this study so as to find out factor affecting the implementation of universal basic education in Ndokwa West Local Government Area of Delta State.
Statement of the Problem
The intent of the UBE as declared in the policy statement is that, education should be free like its predecessor UPE. The financial burden of government often forces parents to get involved in the funding of the Basic level of education. How free is free education policy in Delta State? Since most parents are poor the children remain poorly equipped to learn. The release of funds from the national fund to the DSUBEB is diverted thus, shifting the burden to parents in terms of levies. The UBE declaration of 2000 stipulated that “The Federal government shall provide the bulk of funds while the state government assisting sufficiently to ensure that, the poorly stricken parents contributes minimal funds” despite huge budgets allocated to the Delta State Universal Basic Education Board (DSUBEB) education still eludes millions of Deltans.
The adverse effects of underfunding have led to payment of teachers’ salaries in arrears, non-completion of new construction and provision of incentive for teaching and learning. As Ikoya (2000) asserted that “despite bloated annual budgets for funding the UBE programme including massive aids from local and international communities for successful implementation. They are indications that several schools are still plagued with inadequate physical facilities for effective implementation of UBE. Hence, this study is carried out so as to find out factors affecting the implementation of UBE in some selected primary schools in Ndokwa West Local Government Area.
Purpose of Study
In connection with the statement of problem earlier state, the purpose of the study or investigating is to:
Significance of the Study
The study investigated the factors affecting the implementation of Universal Basic Education. Findings from this study would be beneficial to the educational planners, teaches, students/pupils and to the society in the following aspects:
Findings of this study will provide empirical information that will be of benefits to the educational administrators/planners as it might reveal to them some of these lapses that hinder the effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme especially in the rural areas of Delta State. The findings may also help the educational planners/administrators to see some of the strategies that could enhance effective implementation of Universal Basic Education in state and thereby relating such to the government.
The findings of this study may also serve as an eye opener to teachers as it might enable them to look into certain aspect of the Universal Basic Education programme making them to realise their effective role and as present day reality that hold the key, thus, they can unlock the classroom door for the programme, if they are well disposed to and enthusiastic about it.
The findings will also be of benefit to pupils as it might expose them to the privilege and benefits of the Universal Basic Education programme thereby laying of sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking and developing of sound attitude to learning.
Hence, the finding of this study might therefore make it factual that people need to acquire those proficiencies that are completely necessary for the development of the nation. It is important to know as well that the quality of education we have and ensure proper delivery if there is effective implementation of Universal Basic Education programme.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study is aimed to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of Universal Basic Education. This study will be done using some selected government owned primary schools in Ndokwa West Local Government Area. The study will be most concern with finding out those factors that hinders the effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education in the area of study.
Operational Definition of Terms
Universal Basic Education: A nine (9) year educational programme starting from primary to junior secondary level in Nigeria. The programme as intended to be universal, free and compulsory.
Universal Primary Education (UPE): An educational programme made compulsory by the Federal Government for all children in the states of the federation in 1976.
Implementation: Implantation is the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design for doing something implantation is the action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen.
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