Background of the Study
Over the years perception towards the handicapped children varied significantly from one community to another. Limited literature in disability studies in their endeavours is trace to the development and formation of perception of person who are handicapped. The final section provide and few example that illustrate positive steps taken and several countries to improve the perception of handicapped children. Children with disabilities are one of the most marginalised and excluded groups in the society. Facing daily discrimination in the form of negative attributes, lack of adequate policies and legislation, they are effectively barred from realising their rights to health care, education and even survival.
As Roecher (2007) observes, an examination of attitudes towards people with handicapped children are neither homogenous nor static.
Among the Greeks, the handicapped were considered inferior. Barker (1953) in his republic, Plato recommended that the deformed offspring of both the superior and inferior be put away some “mysterious unknown places.
During the 16th century Christians such as Luther and John Calvin indicated that the mentally retarded and other person with disability were possessed by evil spirit. Thus, these men and other religious leaders of the time often subjected handicapped people to mental or physical pain as a means of exorcising the spirit (Thomas, 2008). Around the turn of the 19th century, the first attempt to educate a retarded person was recorded. In 1998, three hunters found and captured an 11-12 years boy in the wood of Areyron, France. The boy later called Victor the wild boy of Aveyron (Itard 1894-1962) way completely un-socialised and had no language. He was pronounced an “incurable idiot” John Mara Gasper hard a physician who was undedicated, Hard began an intensive training programme with victor, after 5 years he concluded his work deeming it a miserable failure because he did not reach his original goal for victor. However, the changes that did occur with victor were significant, he was much more socialised and could read and write a few words. For the first time it was recognised that intensive training could produced important gains.
Edward seguin, a student of hard founded a school for retarded children in Paris in 1937. He later came to the United States, where he helped to establish the Pennsylvania training school, an early educational facility. The first person to advocate educational programme for mentally retarded children in the United State was Samuel Gridley, who had already devoted much of his life to the education of the blind, deaf and other abnormal children.
In 1848, thanks to his powerful letter arguing for the right of mentally retarded people in a democratic society.
The Massachusetts legislature over rode a governor’s veto and provided Howe Samuel Grdley with $2,500 for the first instruction for the mentally and the mentally ill become the primary means of services delivery. As the institution become overcrowded and understand the optimistic sparked by the education gains produced by the Itard, Seguim, and Howe began to wane, state that has taken years of effort to change, extending to the present.
Today, we are witnessing a more away from total reliance on the large state institution and the self-contained special class in the education and care of mentally retarded children. The trend today is towards more normalised community based facilities and education in the least restrictive environment which for a significant number of mentally retarded and other group of handicapped children include the regular classroom. Some government agencies and voluntary organisation are known to be a ioting people with different forms of disabilities.
Early in 1975 the United Nation Organisation (UNO) declaration on the night for the disabled and for the promotion of programmes and prevention of disability were declared. As recent as 1981 the problem of the handicapped were heightened. This was the year the United Nation Organisation (UNO) set aside for the handicapped to our society with a view to focusing attention to their problems and aspirations. In 1981-1992 was declared a decade for the handicapped, and ever since November 20th of the year 1992 has been declared the International Day of the Disabled Persons (IDDP). Also in December, 20th 2001, Nnamdi represented by the chairman of the state Posted Primary School Management Board (PPSMB) Mr Matthias Eze praised Mrs Hildegard Ebigho the German-Nigerian. #25,000 to support school of the handicapped. Consequently in 2002, handicapped were accepted in Africa-Societies specifically among Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
As a result of this pronouncement and the fact that little is known about the handicap in this area of study, thorough understanding of the handicap was imperative. This is because any disability no matter the degree is sufficient to hinder the chances of the individual to live a full and normal life.
Statement of the Problem
The problem children faced as result of one disability or the other has reach alarming height in our society. Some people are of the view that this is not just a community issue but a national and world problem. In our society, there are children who possess certain features that are quite different from those regarded as normal children. It should however be stressed that this label is quite derogatory and discriminatory.
Other view in their in ability to relate properly with their peers as they are seen as nonentities who have no good measure in them.
Since these children who are erroneously regarded as abnormal are not inferior to their normal counter parts, they also have rights to education and this have made it become necessary to investigate and prospect of handicapped children in Nursery and Primary Schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
The researcher has asked the following research questions, as guide
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of these research is to examine critically the problems and prospects of handicapped children in Nursery and Primary School in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
This study aim to point out how they are treated in the community where they live so as to enable the research to offer useful suggestions based on the findings from this study to assist in reducing the problems faced by these handicapped children especially the physically and mentally retarded.
Significance of the Study
The study will identify various forms of handicapped among the nursery and primary children including their challenges, problems and prospects. This will enable the teacher of the handicapped children in Nursery and Primary School in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State to deal diligently with them and also serve as guide to government and voluntary agencies and organisation in rendering assistance to the handicapped children in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
Scope Delimitation of the Study
This research is centred on problems and prospect of handicapped children in Nursery and Primary School in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. At examining the following nature of handicap; blindness, deafness and dumbness, physically disableness and mentally retardation and how to reduced the problem they encounter and also to seeing them as people who can live a normal life with others in the society.
Teachers of nursery and primary school will be used in responding to the questions that will be raised as their positions as teachers made them to be closely interacting with the children, therefore disposed to answering the questions raised.
Definition of Terms
Prospects: Chances for success or a person who is likely to be successful
Problem: Something that is difficult to deal with or understand
Handicap: A condition that restricts a persons’ ability to function or, the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the life of the community on an equal level with others
Nursery School: A school for young children between three and five years of age
Primary School: A school for children who are between the age of five years and eleven years.