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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. 1.1Background to the Study

Colonization is a process of control by which a central system of power dominates another land and its people and resources, it dates back to the 15th century during the period of discovery and cuts across all corners of the world. . It has existed in almost all periods of world history in different degrees of expression and it is still in existence in various forms even though it is not direct colonization.

Africa is one of the most colonized people on earth, because of its richness in both mineral and human resources and vast land area, it makes her central targets for colonial powers from the late 18th century and African countries put up various forms of resistances during the attempts to colonize their countries, though the super powers and military might of the colonial power means they could not stand the resistance for long.

For most political, moral philosophers and thinkers, the legitimacy of colonialism is their major concern. Since the Crusades and the conquest of the Americas, political theorists have struggled with the difficulty of reconciling ideas about justice and natural law with the practice of European sovereignty over non-Western peoples. From the nineteenth century onward, as more people become enlightened, the disagreement between liberal thought and colonial practice become even more pronounced, as domination of Europe over the rest of the world reached its peak.

During this same period most political philosophers began to defend the principles of universalism and equality. According to Muthu (2003), one of the reasons for this defense was with the argument known as the “civilizing mission,” which implies that a temporary period of political dependence or tutelage was necessary in order for “uncivilized” societies to advance to the point where they were capable of sustaining liberal institutions and self-government (Muthu, 2003).

Fanon was one of those who advocated the decolonization struggles in Africa occurring after World War II, and he was very vocal and one of the most wildly read. In his brief life, he was well noted both for his whole-hearted engagement in the independence struggle the Algerian people waged against France and for his passionate analyses of the human impulse towards freedom in the colonial context.  The struggle for freedom and life has become one of the key attribute of man today, and with more people becoming more educated and enlightened in the society today, this has giving voice to the voiceless and power to the powerless, this is what inspired Fanon while in Algeria, in return he became an inspiration to the people in their quest to for freedom and self-rule.

According to Fanon (1952), “a colonized person must constantly be aware of his image, guiding it with cautiousness and jealously”. The defenses of the colonized are tuned like antennae waiting to pick up hostile signals of a racially divided world, in the process the colonized acquire a peculiar visceral intelligence dedicated to the survival of body and spirit”. Therefore this study seeks to further explore more on his concept of colonization, the repressiveness and racial discrimination.

  1. 1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study is all about colonialism in Frantz Fanon’s view and in the light some key problems and challenges that has to do with colonialism which includes:

What is the essence of colonization? The disguise of power and motive as well as the exploitation that has been executed through colonialism as a form of development.

Another key problem is that colonization has obstructed the internal process of state formation and the development in Africa, Asia and other Third world countries which has left scars of corruption and political instability. The ability to have supremacy over another human and land area as well as the ability to maintain control over resources has been a major driving force for colonization, how do we revert or at least curtail some of these problems?.This study will address some of the problems with the aid of Fanon’s view on colonialism.

  1. 1.3 Scope Of The Study

The work focuses on Frantz Fanon thought on colonization and also an overview of Fanon’s philosophy taking some basic topics as employed by Fanon. Though there are other philosophical approaches regarding colonization and how it has shaped our society today.

  1. 1.4   Purpose Of The Study

The concern of this study is to look at the view of Fanon on colonialism and what it means. Its purpose is to identify the defining features of his view that define what has come to be known as colonialism. To understand the negative and positive impact of colonialism is one other key purpose of this study, how it has affected the society especially in the African setting.

Finally what are the lasting legacies of colonialism and how do we move on and prevent it if possible from ever occurring, that is letting one country to total control over the in the future what lessons should be learned from previous experience.

  1. 1.5   Significance Of The Study

The significance of this study is to analyze the relationship between Western political theory and the project of colonialism. This will be very help for students of philosophy, researchers, political analysts and government agencies as a reference tool on Frantz Fanon colonialism.

This study is of great importance to students especially the undergraduates and even the postgraduate students who may like to acknowledge this work as it gave us insight to colonialism.

It shall also be of tremendous benefit to those in government as this work enlightens, educates and illuminates the individual consciousness on the area of political, economical, cultural etc. freedom from colonialist.

  1. 1.6   Method of the Study

The analytic method is employed as an instrument for investigation. It helps to simplify and clarify Frantz Fanon position on the concept of colonization. This project work is made up five chapters which include the following: Chapter one will contain the background to the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, purpose of the study, significant of the study, method of the study and clarification of terms.

Chapter two discusses the philosophy of Fanon, his life in general and some key areas of concentration of his works. The chapter three will contain the meaning colonialism, its historical origin, its negative effect and the over-thrown of colonialism (decolonalisation). While the chapter four is a critique of colonization in Fanon’s view. and chapter five contain conclusion and bibliography.

  1. 1.7Clarification of Terms

Colonialism: Colonialism is the establishment and maintenance, for an extended time, of rule over an alien people that is separate from and subordinate to the ruling power.further features of the colonialism are: domination of an alien minority, asserting racial and cultural superiority, over a materially inferior native majority; contact between a machine-oriented civilization with Christian origins, a powerful economy, and a rapid rhythm of life and a non-Christian civilization that lacks machines and is marked by a backward economy and a slow rhythm of life; and the imposition of the first civilization upon the second (Balandier 1951, p. 75).

Slavery: According to Wikipedia (2016) slavery is a relationship in which one person has absolute power over the life, fortune, and liberty of another. Slavery is defined as “the condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised, including where such a condition results from a debt or contract made by the person”. (270.1 Criminal Code)
Decolonization: this is the undoing of colonization and given back sovereignty back to the colony over a dependent area. Where the people gained back their freedom from colonial rule and form a viable and independent society.

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