1.1 Background of the Study
Transportation is no doubt an indispensible catalyst for activating and stimulating the tempo of economic, social, political and strategic development in any society. Thus, effective and efficient functioning of urban centres depends on the provision of basic infrastructures one of the most important being transport. This implies that transport infrastructure has to be rationally developed to ensure that movement of people and goods takes place speedily, economically, safely, comfortably and in an environmentally-friendly manner (Sumaila, 2012).
As compliments, there must also be strategic transport infrastructural development to enable all available transport modes to be properly harnessed, stream-lined and integrated for socio-economic and defense purposes (Gbujie, 2003).
Transport according to Hornby (2000:1275) is conveying, or being conveyed or a means of conveyance from one place to another. It is the movement or displacement of persons, good and other movable possessions in time and space for a particular purpose. In human societies, this is not chaotically done because recognized paths marked out by individuals or the societies are usually followed (Sube, 1982: 265). This could be by water, land or air. It is possible that since man from origin is a mobile being, the word transport must have entered his vocabulary as early as when he developed the act of speech (Richard and Ignatius, 2014).
Road transportation is a factor of land transport which involves the movement of people and goods by motor cars, truck, buses, motorcycles and bicycles. It is the most popular means of transport (Areola, 1999; Atubi and Onokala, 2003; Atubi, 2005a). As a popular form of land transport, road transportation can contribute greatly to national development when made efficient. However, road transportation in Nigeria is far from being efficient. According to the web (2006) poor maintenance and years of heavy freight traffic have made much of the road system in Nigeria barely usable.
In the same vein, Filani (1982: 2005) rightly observes that the socio-economic development of any society depends to a large extent on the nature and structure of the transportation networks of the society since it provides the arteries through which the economic life stream of society flows (the people, information, raw materials and finished products) which help to build and maintain the society.
Road Transportation is a necessary end right from early history. The mobility of people and materials especially in the present days become one of the greatest needs that have to be adequately satisfied on our society and economy at large.
Transportation is referred to as the engine of the economy (Kunri 2005:79). This means that with out transportation management system, the entire economy will suffer stagnation. Transportation helps to bridge the gap between producers, suppliers and industrials users as well as individual commuters.
Transport has been likened to the human blood circulatory system whose healthy functioning is a necessary condition for the sustenance of human life (Adeniji, 2000). Transport systems provide a key to the understanding and operation of many other systems at any different scales. At one extreme, inter-continental transport provides essential communication between the advanced and developing worlds, while local transport to rural markets in many parts of the third world is a vital component in changing dynamic socio-economic structures (Barke and O’ Hare, 1984).
Transportation helps to bridge the gap between producers, suppliers and industrial users as well as individual commuters.
There is hardly any human society or human settlement system that can function efficiently and effectively without adequate, reliable, safe and affordable transport systems. The most fundamental reason for this being the catalytic effect of transport development on socio-economic growth and development (NISER, 2001).
Research has shown that transportation alone account for about 46% of the total physical distribution cost for manufacturing companies and 28% for reseller companies. It is important to note that much such success can be accomplish in manufacturing, distribution of goods and services including the movement of people without transportation,
It is as a result of the great importance attached to transportation that man has over the years developed various transportation modes in other to facilitate the movement of people and materials. The mode of transportation selected will greatly depend on price, time, delivery, condition and destination, customer’s patronage, and past purchase satisfaction. This poor transportation management can therefore jeopardize the source of procurement of materials; goods and services, movement or people and even course increase in prices and loss of lives.
According to John et al (2005), developing countries have several factors in common that contribute to the severity of their transport problems. Overall population growth and increasing urbanization have led, especially to the rapid growth of large cities, which have been overwhelmed by the sudden jump in travel demand. The supply of transport infrastructure lagged far behind. Public sector finances in general are so limited that funding for transport improvement is woefully inadequate. Commenting on urban transport problems in Lagos state, Nigeria, Atubi (2007a) opines that some of the most serious problem facing development planner and of the most makers in the country reside in the transport sector.
Transportation is inherently central to development of nations. It is not only a necessity to life but also have a resultant of nations. It is not only a necessity to life but also have a resultant effect on all aspect of human existence. (Oyesiku, 2002). It provides access to goods, services and social activities to maintain a good quality life. It is fundamental in breaking isolation and thus strengthening individual capital base (World Bank Report, 2002; Odufuwa, 2006).
Transportation has been a major contributor to the economy competitive force in business. It is activity that physical connects the business to its supply chain partners, such as suppliers and customers, and it is a major influence on the customer’s satisfactions with the country. Transporting is required in the whole production procedures, from manufacturing to delivery to the final consumers and returns. Only a good co-ordination between each component would bring the benefits to a maximum.
In many Nigerian cities today, transportation situation has reached a crisis point. This is the consequence of several years of neglect by succeeding administrations. Therefore, it is not out of place to state transportation in Nigeria is grossly inadequate (Filani, 2002; Oyesiku, 2002; Odufuwa, 2003 and Atubi, 2009).
The impact of this distressed sector on the economy or the ensuring crisis is severe, with the urban poor suffering more than any other group. The growing transport paucity has had a debilitating effect on the lives of the people and it has continued to trap and push its catchment towards poorer livelihoods. The most devastating problem has been the lack of sustainable mobility and frequent deviant driving behaviours as an escape measure (Odufuwa, Ademiluyi and Adedeji, 2008).
Studies over the years shown that condition of urban transportation in Nigeria is in a deplorable state (Filani, 1988; Adeniji, 2000; Ogunsanya, 2003, Ademiluyi and Gbadamosi, 2004). These scholars affirm that, more than 70% of Nigeria roads are substandard and hardly networked. Travelling on Nigerian roads is breath taking and most un-pleasurable. This stated condition emanates from combined effects of natural ageing of transport infrastructure, lack of maintenance, wrong use of available transport infrastructure, ineffective implementation and enforcement of traffic rules and regulations (Odufuwa, 2007).
From all indications there is high level of poverty among urban households in the country. The transport infrastructure and services generally requires a complete overhauling or repair in other to make them physically sound. Also worth mentioning, are the land use mix factors that the intra-urban travel. The land use mix factor affects the intra-urban travel behavior and it has a profound influence on urban trans[port planning and management in general (Oyesiku, 2002).
However, Atubi and Onokala (2003), in their study of road transportation and the socio-0economic development in Warri metropolis, concluded that road transportation indeed contributes tremendously to the socio-economic development of that metropolis. But this some transport that builds a city, also in other ways if not properly managed causes some damage to the same city (Ogunsanya, 2002).
Customer satisfaction is considered to be the most factors whether it is meant for a product or a service. In case of failure to satisfy customers, companies will be replaced by others.
Industries offering various services have to be more vigilant because there is a special attitude that plays an important role attracting and retaining the customers. Whether the buyer is satisfied after purchase depends on the offers performance in relation to the buyer expectation. In general, satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product perceived performance in relation to his or her expectation. It an organization’s transportation performance falls short of expectations in any circumstance, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectation, the customer is satisfied. If the performance exceeds the expectation the customer is highly satisfied.
Based on that the topic under research is “Road transportation Management and customer’s satisfaction”. This research seeks to identify the problem and find out possible measures and solution to the problems.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor road transportation management is one major problem that is affecting the growth of the economy. Poor road transportation management has led to the ineffectiveness and collapse of the Nigerian road system that supposes to carry bulky goods from one city to another and has made inflation to be high. This is in turn has bounced as the road transportation system characteristized by heavy duty Lorries overworking the road system and the resultant effect is damages of roads causing accidents and loss of lives and property. Poor management of road transportation systems has cost the nation a damaged image, loss of huge amount of money, loss of lives and properties and most customers are greatly dissatisfied with condition of road transportation in Nigeria (Kootz and Donnel, 2016).
Lack of poor technological development to monitor or regulate the speed of vehicles, lack of clean vehicles, high overloading of men and goods are great problems to road transportation (Koontz, 2009). In addition, the poor attitude of drivers towards their passengers is nothing to write home about. Road transport is the principal mode of transportation in Nigeria accounting for the vast majority of freight and passenger travel.
Over the years the road system has been subjected to heavy freight which was beyond the carrying of the roads. This made the condition of the roads deteriorate and the result is that much of the road system is barely usable. The heavy freight traffic is part as a result of the failure of railway system from the 1970 successive administrations have failed to redesign and modify the obsolete nw-row network to serve the new economy depend on oil (Nwakamma, 2006). Hence roads were built to carry freight that could conveniently be carried by railways. Today, road transportation accounts for over 95% of passengers and freight transport (Ojabo, 2007).
Armed robbery is a major problem affecting road transport in Nigeria especially the highways, the robbers kill, injure and frighten their victims, terror generally unleashing on commuters/travelers. Highway crimes like armed robbery thwart efforts towards national development. Furthermore, the highway armed robbery give the country a bad image abroad. Foreigners proposing to come to Nigeria for vacations are usually advised by their embassies that “Public transportation throughout Nigeria is dangerous and should be avoided”. (The web, 2007). Thus such people fear coming into the country as a result of the insecurity caused by the highway armed robbery.
Traffic congestion in Nigeria has turned mobility by road to a nightmare (Ogunleye, 2008). Today a lot of damage has been caused by this unhealthy phenomenon. There is a marked increase in lateness to work, school and business. There are also cases of lowered productivity, chronic fatigue and bad stress. The cumulative effect is a crashing down of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Loy, 2004). Atubi and Onokala (2004), have asserted that, for any meaningful division of labour and specialization in production process to take place in any society, there must be an efficient and effective transport system.
In Nigeria the need for an effective transport system becomes more obvious if taken into consideration the large size of the country and the need to disperse development move. The inability of Nigerians to device a better transportation system has been a detraction of the growth of the economic social and political life of the economy. Prominent among the problem, includes traveling difficulty lateness to work, movement of agricultural product, goods and services from area of production to area of utilization. The federal government of Nigeria offer appraisal of the chafic transport system launched in federal urban mass transit programme (FUMTP) in January 1988. Consequently in order to ensure the continuity of existence of mass transit service, the manager need to device relevant programme capable of alternating the retaining passenger’s patronage. Such actions programme can apply be christened (Rachev et al, 2008).
Public participation in transport delivery can be said to be profitable, otherwise none of them would continue to provide these services. On the other hand, it has not been so with government participation. Evidences available from empirical studies carried out (Odeleye, 2004; Ogunsanya, 1998 and Onakomaiya, 2002) showed that state mass transit was run at a loss. The reasons include non-chalant attitude to government work by the employees, embezzlement on the part of drivers and conductors, and inadequate response to taking immediate actions on repairs and services of vehicles by government parastatals established for such purposes. The attitude of some professional drivers also scares private investment in the areas of transport service delivery.
The advancement in today’s business world, organizations is faced with the challenges of effective customer satisfaction or customer relationship management. (Algugen et al, 2007) state that one of the goals that management has its employees achieved is based on the maximum as “the customer is always right” and “do whatever it takes to deliver your promise” or “something similar”.
The practice of neglecting or not recognizing the customer has gone on for many years, until recently when companies started realizing that their customer, did not come back. In their quest to break barrier, many companies face a lot of challenges especially when they lack the requisite tools or methods to arrive at this goal.
Majority of the transport companies composed by small sized vehicles owned and operated are low-skilled young men who migrated to cites from the countryside. Over abundances of idle labour makes road transport an attractive employment opportunity. This condition leads to ignorance of passengers’ safety and discipline in using road,
Most transport companies in Nigeria are delivery poor service quality, poor maintenance of fleet and unsafe service. Big share of the vehicle fleet consists of second hand vehicles purchased from industrialized countries, ages of the vehicles are quite old and there is a low maintenance budget. Reliability, convenience and travel time are considered to have a great impact of customer satisfaction in relation with the type of the trip, but most transport companies do not take it seriously.
According to Kantorovich (2012) achieving customer satisfaction is the key objective of every company, that is, if total profit for a period is to be achieved. This cannot be achieved if the management of the transport activities in an establishment is faced with some problems such as;
- Delay in delivery of goods.
- Improper handling of materials resulting in damage of goods.
- Lack of qualified personnel.
- Inadequate transportation system in the organization.
- Improper maintenance of transporting system causing breakdown leading to late delivery.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The main overall objective of this research is to investigate impact of road transportation management that will yield satisfaction to customers
The specific objectives include to:
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant role road transportation play in the movement of goods and services.
H1: Road transportation plays a significant role road in the movement of goods and services.
H0: Commuters are not satisfied when there is breakdown of vehicle on the high way
H1: Commuters are satisfied when there is breakdown of vehicle on the high way
H0: Commuters are not satisfied when they do not reach their destination at the scheduled time.
H1: Commuters are satisfied when they do not reach their destination at the scheduled time.
H0: Commuters are not satisfied when a driver is at high speed limit
H1: Commuters are satisfied when a driver is at high speed limit.
H0: Delta State Intra-city Mass Transit does not have adequate modern technology and infrastructure to the satisfaction of customers
H1: Delta State Intra-city Mass Transit has adequate modern technology and infrastructure to the satisfaction of customers
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work has academic significance due to its relevance in the field of educational institution most specifically undergraduates in marketing and geography and regional planning which is among the educational unit that trains future managers, administrators and planners. Etc. its findings and suggestion is likely to generate academic debate on the matter and interest among scholars.
The study could also help the ministry of transport to better understand the current situation in road transportation management. And accordingly makes changes to address the factors that consequently help to formulate policies aimed at solving the problems of road transportation management on customer’s satisfaction. The study will be of great importance to private and public organization such as transport companies and individuals concerned with the business of transportation; it will serve as a guide on the area of implementing customer satisfaction, staff training on customer satisfaction, to address the obstacles hindering effect on customer satisfaction.
On the part of transport owner, it will help create awareness among them; it will help the transport owners to keep abreast of the importance of customer’s satisfaction.
Lastly, students and researchers would want to benefit from this study. Also, the study is to immense benefit in the area of recommendation that would help in improving the general performance of the company in question.
1.7 STUDY AREA
1.7.1 Location and Size
Delta State is located in the southern part of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. Delta State lies approximately within latitude 050 001N and 060 301N of the equator and longitude 050 001E and 050 451N of the Greenwich meridian. It is bounded by Edo State in the North, Bayelsa State in the South-East, Anambra State in the East and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Delta as a state has experienced rapid increase in size over the years, due to the presence of various tourist sites such as the Delta State Intra-city Mass Transit, hotels, bars, beach and forest reserve etc. This attracts people from surrounding area, to itself, because of its transport route and attraction thus resulting to the rapid development of the area. The covers an area of 1,920km2. (See Fig 1)
1.7.2 Climate and Vegetation
Delta State falls under the equatorial rainforest belt and rainforest climate. The areas enjoy the tropical environment of tropical rainforest climate (AF) of Koppen in 1918 and the wet equatorial climate of Strahler in 1969 classification of climate. The climate of these areas is influenced by two air masses, the tropical maritime air mass and tropical continental air mass. These regions are of the humid tropical climate with high temperature between the months of November and April with variation in temperature between 250C -300C between April and October. The regions have an annual temperature of about 30.6oc with a monthly mean temperature of about 300C from September and 31.10c in June and July with an annual range in temperature between 30c and 50c. It is discovered in repeated studies that the average rainfall distribution in these regions is about 2500mm-3000mm annually (Efe, 2002a). These regions experience rainfall throughout the year owing to its location in the Niger Delta zone with the continual monsoon wind blowing from the Atlantic ocean and also a continuous shift in the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) due to the equatorial rainforest which is evergreen forest and consist of three canopies of trees which are; the upper layer which is about 40m tall and the lower layer which is about 30m in height.
The three major vegetation types in Delta State are the tropical rainforest belt, temperate grasslands, and the grass land. Vegetation remains one of the key factors which affect the climate of these regions. Vegetation provides lumbering, herbs for medicinal purpose, food, income and employment to the people of these regions.
1.7.3 Relief and Drainage System
Delta State is drained by two Rivers; River Ethiope and the Forcados. Delta State and its environ is specifically drained by River Ethiope and the Atlantic Ocean which empty its water shield into the River Niger Basin and terminates at the Atlantic Ocean. Most communities in Delta State are located in the upland in between these rivers the drainage pattern of River Ethiope, Atlantic Ocean and Forcados is dentritic in nature. These rivers serves as recreational and tourist centres, major source of water to the populace, mining sites for sand stones, religious activities and agricultural activities just to mention but a few.
Delta State lies within the low land area of Nigeria with 50m above sea level. Also, it is only about 45km from the coast of Nigeria. These regions have a low relief of gentle hilly flat surface with an Anticline nature i.e having an elevation of less than or equal to 60 which in the north shell can also be linked in classification with the interior coastal landmass of western Nigeria.
1.7.4 Geology and Soils
Delta State is predominantly characterized by sedimentary rock. These regions lie in southern most sedimentary basins in Nigeria.
Delta State has similar soil type, texture and structure since they are both in the riverine areas of the lowland region. The soil in these region is loamy in nature with muddy soil which varies from coarse through medium to fine grained soils. The soils sometimes can be said to be loamy and clayey and greenish and reddish brown in colour and then to brown. The light grayish colouration characterizes the entire loamy portion of the soil, while the reddish brown colouration depicts the presence of iron oxide in the soil. The colouration depicts the availability of mineral matters and moisture. Delta State is well structured in relation to its type in terms of grain size, well spaced which greatly influences the rate of percolation and capillarity, aeration and the rate of evaporation.
1.7.5 Socio-economic activities
The socio-economic activities in Delta State varies from trading, fishing, farming to commercial businesses which have boost the economy of the area through internally generated revenue. The Delta State tourism region is one of the most fascinating tourist site in Nigeria where economic activities carried out in the region is mostly from these tourists sites which is strategically located in a tourist attraction environment where people from far and near come for sightseeing thereby creating employment, and boasting the economy of the regions. It is of no doubt that the tourist site in Delta State have really improved the economy of the State and the country at large as tourism plays a key role in the development of any region.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This research work covers the road transportation system in Nigeria with special focus to Delta State Intra-city Mass Transit, their functions, operationalization, problems and government policies to regulate this industry as to deliver maximum satisfaction to the public.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
The researcher faced some limitation during the course of this research. Some branches or Delta State Intra-city Mass Transit were unwillingly to supply the needed information due to the confidential and sensitive of the data. Thus research work have to source for the available data.
Time and financial factor is also the major factors as the timeframe to submit the project was too short for an extensive research. Inadequate financial resources to cater for the researcher monetary need.
Incorrect information from respondent who may not want to expose their inadequacy.
1.10 Definition of Terms
MOT: Ministry of Transport
VIO: Vehicle Inspector Officer
FSLC: First School Leaving Certificate
WEAC: West African Examination Council
NCE: National Certificate of Education
OND: Ordinary National Diploma
HND: Higher National Diploma
BSc: Bachelor of Science