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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

          Urbanization, which refers to the expansion in the proportion of a population living in urban areas, is one of the major social transformations sweeping the globe (Jiboye, 2011). It represents the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration (Misilu et al, 2010; and Akhmet and Bochun, 2010). A UN report notes that the global urban population has quadrupled since 1950s, and cities of the developing world now account for over to percent of the world urban now account for over 70% percent of the world urban growth (UN, 2006). A population estimate indicated that a certain point in 2007, the world’s urban population will equal rural population for the first time in history. The growth in the urban population will continue to rise, projected to reach almost 5billion in 2030. Much of this urbanization is predicted to take place in the developing world with Asia and Africa having the largest urban populations (UN, 2005; World Bank, 2008). Current reports also indicate that more than half of area, and by the year 2050, 70 percent will be city dwellers, with cities and towns in Asia and Africa registering the biggest growth. Consequently, urban population is anticipated to grow on an average 2.3% per year in the developing world between 2000 and 2030 (Akhmat and Bochun, 2010; Brockherhoff, 2015; UN, 2014).

          Since the city is regarded as the engine of growth which propels national economic development; the effects and problems emanating from these population increase have undoubtedly constituted critical challenges to sustainable housing and urban development. Although studies have shown that the problem of housing is universal (Aina, 2015; Lawanson, 2013; Olotuah and Bobadoye, 2012). It is however more critical in less developed countries including Nigeria. The challenge of housing, the increasing urban population, particularly the poor is becoming more critical in the urban areas of less developed countries where an explosive expansion of the urban population due to a high population growth rate and massive rural – urban drift has compounded the housing situation. Nigeria has been no exception to this trend as it has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world (World Bank, 2008; Oladunjoye, 2005; Jiboye, 2009). Not only is the country experiencing one of the fastest rates of urbanization in the world, its experience has also be unique in scale, pervasiveness and historical antecedents. This process has resulted in a very dense network of urban centres (Oladunjoye, 2011). The proportion of the Nigerian population living in urban centres in the 1930s, and 10% in 1950, by 1970, 1980 and 1990, 20%, 27% and 35% lived in the cities respectively. Over 40% of nnigerians now live in urban centres of varying sizes (Olotuah and Bobadoye, 2012; Okupe, 2013).

          The incidence of population increase in urban centres has created severe housing problems, resulting in overcrowding, inadequate dwelling, deplorable urban environment, degrading public infrastructure, and to an extreme, “outright homelessness” in most of the city centres (UN, 2007; Jiboye, 2009; FGN, 2004; Olotuah and Ajenifujah, 2007). The explosive rates of growth have not only progressively complicated and aggravated inter-related problems of human settlement and environment, but have also greatly accelerated poverty (Oladunjoye, 2011). As part of its concern towards achieving sustainable urban growth, particularly in the area of housing development, various national governments in Nigeria had in the past embarked on policies and programs intended towards addressing the various housing inadequacies. Also, in the recent past, Nigerian government has been actively involved up to the extent of being a signatory to many treaties in several global agenda on issues of sustainability (Oladunjoye, 2011; Jiboye, 2009; UN, 2007; UN, 2009). All of these made sustainable housing and urban development one of the central issues for deliberations. Progress report on these efforts indicates that in the lost five years, Nigeria has been pursuing an integrated approach in the planning and management of its rapid urbanization which has resulted in reviews of the National Policies on Urban Development and Housing and the evolution of a home-grown National Economic Empowerment and Development and Strategy (NEEDS). The central focus of the strategy in on environmental management, sanitation, water, health and population. Issues of good governance and improved popular participation in governance and partnership with national and international development partners are also being mainstreamed into national agenda for development (Oladunjoye, 2011). These efforts nonetheless, have yielded no appreciable result as existing realities show a lot of disparities in official approach along this direction (Jiboye, 2009).

          A growing population needs basic amenities to sustain the standard of life of its citizens. Housing in all its ramifications is more than mere shelter. Housing embraces all the social services and utility that goes to make a community or neighourhood, a livable environment (FGN, 2007; Omoniyi and Jiboye, 2009). Housing generally has not ranked high on the scale of priorities for social spending. Listokin et al (2007), defines housing as a permanent structure for human habitation. It is also referred to as the house and defined as a home. Building and structure that is, a dwelling or place for habitation by human. It has also become a critical component in social, economic and health fabric of every nation. As a unit of environment, it has a profound influence on the health efficiency, social behavior, satisfaction, productivity and general welfare of the social, cultural and economic value of a society as it appears as the best physical and historical evidence of civilization in a country and a reliable measure or indicator of economic development (Jiboye, 2009).

          The level of affordable housing is one of the most critical issues facing both rural and urban center in Delta State. In the United Kingdom, affordable housing includes social rented and intermediate housing; provide to specify eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. Affordable housing refers to a number of forms that exists along continuum-form emergency shelters, to transitional housing, to non market rented, also known as a social or subsidized housing, to formal and informal rental. Indigenous housing and ending with affordable home ownership. It has been observed that rapid urbanization and poor economic growth have compounded the problem of inadequate housing in Nigeria. The unaffordable housing is fraught with a plethora of problems especially low income earners who incidentally constitutes the majority of the population are living in homes that are without the basic social infrastructures and are left without any choice than to live in dilapidated houses. Housing policy is essentially necessary as a guide over various actors in housing sector. But in the case of Nigeria, despite all efforts made by the state, federal and local government, majority of its citizen still lives in substandard houses. High quality and well managed housing is a cornerstone of sustainable communities.

          The location, planning, layout and design of housing also make an important contribution to sustainable development. Most houses in Nigeria have shown a deteriorating nature in the quality. Thus, Nigerian’s must embrace the principle of sustainable development as emphasized by Jiboye (2011) on the good governance through effectives partnerships among stakeholders in improving social, economic and environmental quality in the urban area. Hence, the need for this study to examine the socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centre: A case study of Agbor-Delta State.

1.2     Statement of Problem

          Abotutu (2006) pointed out that housing is a basic need of a society and exerts a profound impact on the health, efficiency, social behavior, satisfaction and general welfare of the individuals and groups. Lack of adequate housing in terms of quality and quantity is mostly in the rural area as a result of high cost of building materials and in urban centers is also affected by high cost of house rentage and housing demand (Gilberston et al, 2008).

          One major challenge militating against sustainable housing and urban development in most developing countries is that of spontaneous and uncontrolled urbanization. It has been observed that rapid growth in urbanization is characteristic of the developing countries, and this has been particularly so since the 1950s.

This has found expressions in the high annual growth rates attainted by agglomerated settlements. High quality and well-managed housing is a cornerstone of sustainable communities. The location, planning, layout and design of housing also make an important contribution to sustainable development. Existing studies on the housing situation in Nigeria, especially in the urban areas however reveal acute housing problems expressed in both quantitative and qualitative terms (Housing Corporation, 2003; Abiodun, 1983; Onibokun, 2008; Aribigbola, 2010; Mabogunje, 2002). While decent housing can be regarded as the right of every individual, a larger proportion of the population in Nigeria lives in substandard and poor housing. The reality of this scenario is that the urban house forms in Nigeria accommodate extended family living with many inconveniences, while spatial congestion and infrastructures overloads cause problems in living comfort. (Awotona and Ogunshakin, 2013).

          It has been observed that rapid urbanization and poor economic growth have compounded the problems of inadequate housing in nigeria (Okoye, 2009). These housing inadequacies, particularly for the low income group, ---------- been complicated by high rate of population growth, inflated real estate values, influx of rural immigrants, deplorable urban services and infrastructures, and a lack of implementation of planning policies (Oladunjoye, 2011; Olotual, 2015). The reality of this situation is that existing housing stocks are inadequate to cater for the increasing population. in Agbor for instance, which is one of the fastest growing urbanize city in Nigeria, the situation has become so pathetic such that overcrowding, slum and substandard housing as well unhealthy and poor environmental conditions are expressions of this problem. Apart from the acute shortfall in housing supply in relation to demand, the majority of dwelling in the hinterland mostly owned by the indigence’s, remained, remained unplanned (Abiodun, 2005; Oduwaiye, 2009).

          Since housing remains a social responsibility of every government, and to a large extent, the health of a country and well-being of its people depends on the quality, condition and level of success in the housing sector (Housing Corporation, 2003; Gilberstson et al, 2008).

          The above problems are faced in Agbor, where most houses are characterized with low quality and quantity, unavailable facilities, scattered houses and no provision of low cost housing implementation. It is imperative that appropriate housing policy should be put in place to address the urban housing problems necessitated by rapid urbanization in Nigeria.

1.3     Aim and Objective

          The main aim of this study is to examine the socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centre: A case study of Agbor-Delta State. In order to achieve the above stated aim, the following objectives were designed to guide the researcher; they are to:

  1. Identify the various socio-economic activities affected by housing demand in the area.
  2. Identify the role of housing in the socio-economic development of the area.
  3. Examine the role of government in solving the problems of housing in an urban center.
  4. Examine the factors militating against sustainable housing delivery in Agbor.
  5. Examine the quality of building materials used in the study area.
  6. To proffer solutions to address the housing problem in Agbor.

1.4     Research Hypothesis

          The following null hypotheses formulated will be tested in this study:

  1. There is no significant relationship between the income level of the residents of Agbor and the types of building unit in the area.
  2. There is no significant relationship between the socio-economic status of the residents of Agbor and housing demand in the area.

1.5     Significance of the Study

          The significance of the study lies in overall; socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centres: A case study of Agbor, Delta State. Urban housing problem has become so wide spread that it cannot be overlooked. It is to this effect that the study is aimed at informing the people of Agbor the extent to which housing demand have resulted to environmental problem such as housing congestion, overcrowding, land use congestion etc which have generated the creation of the slum settlement.

          Hence, effort must be put in place to control population explosion of cities and urban centres in order not to affect the housing delivery of the study area; the housing quality of Agbor is continued to be affected by the rapid increase in population and rapid migration of the rural dwellers to the cities in search for greener pasture. There may be development of slums around Agbor town due to housing congestion and other housing problems which will in turn affect not only the residents of Agbor but also their socio-economic activities thus hindering the soio-economic development of the area. It may also become a major socio-economic determinant in the study area. It is therefore hoped that the result of this research work will go an extra mile to control environmental problems such as housing congestion caused by increasing population of the urban centres resulting to the development and slums. The findings will also provide useful background information for future research in the contribution of geography towards nation building.

1.6     Research Methods

          The data for this study were obtained from two sources. The first which is the primary source involve reconnaissance survey, administration of questionnaire and oral interview which will be carried out to augment the secondary data.

          The secondary source of information will involve of secondary materials already existing which are in the form of maps, journal, magazine, articles, newspapers, internet, published and unpublished texts.

1.6.1  Method of Data Collection

          One hindered and fifty (150) questionnaires will be administered to the people of Agbor. The questionnaire will be the main research instrument used for the study and will be designed and structured to elicit information on socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centre, using Agbor as a case study. The questionnaires will be administered to respondents by or hand ensure quick response and easy retrieval. The respondents will be approached in a friendly manner.

          The questionnaire will comprise of two (2) different sections which will be used to obtain information for this study. The first section of the questionnaire will be based solely on the respondents’ personal information. The second questionnaire will deal with socio-economic determinants of housing demand in urban centres.

          The researcher also divided Agbor into ten (10) zones and areas. The ten (10) zones which are listed below, were chosen out of the existing streets and quarters in Agbor because preliminary field survey indicated that the problems of housing demand was serious demand was more serious in these areas.

Those that are seriously affected by housing congestion are divided into ten (10) zones and areas, in which four (4), major streets were indentified and randomly selected, for the purpose of field survey and easy administration of questionnaires. In each of these zones/area, ----------- questionnaires were administered. Systematic techniques.

          The zones and streets in which the study area are divided include; Agbor-Abraka road, college junction, Agbor Obi, New Lagos-Asaba road, Old Lagos –Asaba road, Covent Street, Dr. White street, Morka by Owen street, Beleke street, and Cementery street.

1.6.2  Method of Data Analysis

          Information gathered will be synthesized during data analysis using simple statistical charts, such as the bar chart and histogram, while the person’s product moment correlation co-efficient will be used to test if truly there exist a significant relationship between the income level of the residents of Agbor and the quality of housing in the area and the hypotheses postulated for this study.

          The Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient will be used because it is a parametric correlations, which deals with intervals variable, each of which is normally distributed.

                   The Pearson’s product Moment correlation co-efficient (PPMCC) is presented mathematically as follows;

          r        =       N(xy)        -        (x) (y)

                             N(x2) – (x)2 x N(y2) – (y)2

where;

          r        =       Correlation co-efficient

          x        =       Dependent variable

          y        =       Independent variable

          n        =       Number of samples

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the Study

          The scope of this research work was strictly based on the socio-economic determinant of housing demand in an urban centre: A case study of Agbor, Delta State. And to offer suggestion (s) on the problems of housing.

          The scope of the study was initially designed to cover all the streets and quarters in Agbor. However, because of time and financial constraints, the scope was scaled down. In this regard only. Selected major areas were covered in this study.      

          These limitations notwithstanding, the data generated from this study and research findings will be of invaluable assistance in the management of housing problems.

1.8     Study Area

1.8.1  Location and Size

          Agbor lies between the geographical co-ordinate of latitudes 060161 0011N. and longitude 0600910011E of the Greenwich Meridian. Agbor is located in the south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria and in the Niger Delta region. Abgor is one of the biggest towns in Delta State. It is found in Ika south Local Government Area of Delta State. Neighborhoods in Agbor includes; Boji-Boji Agbor, Emuhu, Ekuku Agbor, Agbor Nta, Alihami, Alisemen, Alifekede, Alizomor and a lost of others.

          Geographically, the Ika speaking people are found in the North West of Delta state. They share borders linguistically in the west with the Edo speaking dialect, in the North, with the Ishan speakers in the East with the Aniocha Language speakers and in the south with the Ukwani speakers . the dialect which belong to the Igbo group (Williamson, 1986). Agbor came from the word “Gbon” meaning “develop” or “rise”.

1.8.2  Climate

          Agbor area experience warmest average temperature at March, 32.50c at noon while at December has its coldest with an average temperature of 20.80c at night. Agbor has no distinct temperature season.

          The temperature is relatively constant during the day. December is on average, the month with most sunshine. The wet season has a rainfall peak around the month of January. The climate type is classified as a tropical savanna.

1.8.3  Vegetation and Soil

          The vegetation of Agbor is preserved. The land scale is mostly covered with closed to open broad leaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. The soil in this area is high in acrisols, alisols, plinthosol (ac), acid soil with clay enriched lower horizon and low saturation of bases. The high yield of agricultural activities takes place in this area due to richness of the soil. Crops like yam, cassava, plantain, raffia palms, maize, cocoa yam, including vegetables.

1.8.4  Socio-Economic Activities

          Agbor is a commercial and institutional center. The inhabitants of this area are mostly engaged in commercial activities, while secondary and tertiary activities dominates the core city. The primary activities carried out in the area (which is the setting of raw materials through agricultural processes) covers all farming activities. The secondary activities include, the use of the raw materials been extracted to produce finished goods. The use of cassava in processing of garri, palm fruits product in making of palm oil and the branched (raffia palms) for making brooms. Also, tertiary activities are the economic activities which take place in the area. These include bead making, tailoring and carpentry.

          Also, education is not left out. Educational institutions range from nursery, primary, secondary and tertiary establishments. Others include school of nursing and the college of education, Agbor.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

          Urbanization, which refers to the expansion in the proportion of a population living in urban areas, is one of the major social transformations sweeping the globe (Jiboye, 2011). It represents the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration (Misilu et al, 2010; and Akhmet and Bochun, 2010). A UN report notes that the global urban population has quadrupled since 1950s, and cities of the developing world now account for over to percent of the world urban now account for over 70% percent of the world urban growth (UN, 2006). A population estimate indicated that a certain point in 2007, the world’s urban population will equal rural population for the first time in history. The growth in the urban population will continue to rise, projected to reach almost 5billion in 2030. Much of this urbanization is predicted to take place in the developing world with Asia and Africa having the largest urban populations (UN, 2005; World Bank, 2008). Current reports also indicate that more than half of area, and by the year 2050, 70 percent will be city dwellers, with cities and towns in Asia and Africa registering the biggest growth. Consequently, urban population is anticipated to grow on an average 2.3% per year in the developing world between 2000 and 2030 (Akhmat and Bochun, 2010; Brockherhoff, 2015; UN, 2014).

          Since the city is regarded as the engine of growth which propels national economic development; the effects and problems emanating from these population increase have undoubtedly constituted critical challenges to sustainable housing and urban development. Although studies have shown that the problem of housing is universal (Aina, 2015; Lawanson, 2013; Olotuah and Bobadoye, 2012). It is however more critical in less developed countries including Nigeria. The challenge of housing, the increasing urban population, particularly the poor is becoming more critical in the urban areas of less developed countries where an explosive expansion of the urban population due to a high population growth rate and massive rural – urban drift has compounded the housing situation. Nigeria has been no exception to this trend as it has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world (World Bank, 2008; Oladunjoye, 2005; Jiboye, 2009). Not only is the country experiencing one of the fastest rates of urbanization in the world, its experience has also be unique in scale, pervasiveness and historical antecedents. This process has resulted in a very dense network of urban centres (Oladunjoye, 2011). The proportion of the Nigerian population living in urban centres in the 1930s, and 10% in 1950, by 1970, 1980 and 1990, 20%, 27% and 35% lived in the cities respectively. Over 40% of nnigerians now live in urban centres of varying sizes (Olotuah and Bobadoye, 2012; Okupe, 2013).

          The incidence of population increase in urban centres has created severe housing problems, resulting in overcrowding, inadequate dwelling, deplorable urban environment, degrading public infrastructure, and to an extreme, “outright homelessness” in most of the city centres (UN, 2007; Jiboye, 2009; FGN, 2004; Olotuah and Ajenifujah, 2007). The explosive rates of growth have not only progressively complicated and aggravated inter-related problems of human settlement and environment, but have also greatly accelerated poverty (Oladunjoye, 2011). As part of its concern towards achieving sustainable urban growth, particularly in the area of housing development, various national governments in Nigeria had in the past embarked on policies and programs intended towards addressing the various housing inadequacies. Also, in the recent past, Nigerian government has been actively involved up to the extent of being a signatory to many treaties in several global agenda on issues of sustainability (Oladunjoye, 2011; Jiboye, 2009; UN, 2007; UN, 2009). All of these made sustainable housing and urban development one of the central issues for deliberations. Progress report on these efforts indicates that in the lost five years, Nigeria has been pursuing an integrated approach in the planning and management of its rapid urbanization which has resulted in reviews of the National Policies on Urban Development and Housing and the evolution of a home-grown National Economic Empowerment and Development and Strategy (NEEDS). The central focus of the strategy in on environmental management, sanitation, water, health and population. Issues of good governance and improved popular participation in governance and partnership with national and international development partners are also being mainstreamed into national agenda for development (Oladunjoye, 2011). These efforts nonetheless, have yielded no appreciable result as existing realities show a lot of disparities in official approach along this direction (Jiboye, 2009).

          A growing population needs basic amenities to sustain the standard of life of its citizens. Housing in all its ramifications is more than mere shelter. Housing embraces all the social services and utility that goes to make a community or neighourhood, a livable environment (FGN, 2007; Omoniyi and Jiboye, 2009). Housing generally has not ranked high on the scale of priorities for social spending. Listokin et al (2007), defines housing as a permanent structure for human habitation. It is also referred to as the house and defined as a home. Building and structure that is, a dwelling or place for habitation by human. It has also become a critical component in social, economic and health fabric of every nation. As a unit of environment, it has a profound influence on the health efficiency, social behavior, satisfaction, productivity and general welfare of the social, cultural and economic value of a society as it appears as the best physical and historical evidence of civilization in a country and a reliable measure or indicator of economic development (Jiboye, 2009).

          The level of affordable housing is one of the most critical issues facing both rural and urban center in Delta State. In the United Kingdom, affordable housing includes social rented and intermediate housing; provide to specify eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. Affordable housing refers to a number of forms that exists along continuum-form emergency shelters, to transitional housing, to non market rented, also known as a social or subsidized housing, to formal and informal rental. Indigenous housing and ending with affordable home ownership. It has been observed that rapid urbanization and poor economic growth have compounded the problem of inadequate housing in Nigeria. The unaffordable housing is fraught with a plethora of problems especially low income earners who incidentally constitutes the majority of the population are living in homes that are without the basic social infrastructures and are left without any choice than to live in dilapidated houses. Housing policy is essentially necessary as a guide over various actors in housing sector. But in the case of Nigeria, despite all efforts made by the state, federal and local government, majority of its citizen still lives in substandard houses. High quality and well managed housing is a cornerstone of sustainable communities.

          The location, planning, layout and design of housing also make an important contribution to sustainable development. Most houses in Nigeria have shown a deteriorating nature in the quality. Thus, Nigerian’s must embrace the principle of sustainable development as emphasized by Jiboye (2011) on the good governance through effectives partnerships among stakeholders in improving social, economic and environmental quality in the urban area. Hence, the need for this study to examine the socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centre: A case study of Agbor-Delta State.

1.2     Statement of Problem

          Abotutu (2006) pointed out that housing is a basic need of a society and exerts a profound impact on the health, efficiency, social behavior, satisfaction and general welfare of the individuals and groups. Lack of adequate housing in terms of quality and quantity is mostly in the rural area as a result of high cost of building materials and in urban centers is also affected by high cost of house rentage and housing demand (Gilberston et al, 2008).

          One major challenge militating against sustainable housing and urban development in most developing countries is that of spontaneous and uncontrolled urbanization. It has been observed that rapid growth in urbanization is characteristic of the developing countries, and this has been particularly so since the 1950s.

This has found expressions in the high annual growth rates attainted by agglomerated settlements. High quality and well-managed housing is a cornerstone of sustainable communities. The location, planning, layout and design of housing also make an important contribution to sustainable development. Existing studies on the housing situation in Nigeria, especially in the urban areas however reveal acute housing problems expressed in both quantitative and qualitative terms (Housing Corporation, 2003; Abiodun, 1983; Onibokun, 2008; Aribigbola, 2010; Mabogunje, 2002). While decent housing can be regarded as the right of every individual, a larger proportion of the population in Nigeria lives in substandard and poor housing. The reality of this scenario is that the urban house forms in Nigeria accommodate extended family living with many inconveniences, while spatial congestion and infrastructures overloads cause problems in living comfort. (Awotona and Ogunshakin, 2013).

          It has been observed that rapid urbanization and poor economic growth have compounded the problems of inadequate housing in nigeria (Okoye, 2009). These housing inadequacies, particularly for the low income group, ---------- been complicated by high rate of population growth, inflated real estate values, influx of rural immigrants, deplorable urban services and infrastructures, and a lack of implementation of planning policies (Oladunjoye, 2011; Olotual, 2015). The reality of this situation is that existing housing stocks are inadequate to cater for the increasing population. in Agbor for instance, which is one of the fastest growing urbanize city in Nigeria, the situation has become so pathetic such that overcrowding, slum and substandard housing as well unhealthy and poor environmental conditions are expressions of this problem. Apart from the acute shortfall in housing supply in relation to demand, the majority of dwelling in the hinterland mostly owned by the indigence’s, remained, remained unplanned (Abiodun, 2005; Oduwaiye, 2009).

          Since housing remains a social responsibility of every government, and to a large extent, the health of a country and well-being of its people depends on the quality, condition and level of success in the housing sector (Housing Corporation, 2003; Gilberstson et al, 2008).

          The above problems are faced in Agbor, where most houses are characterized with low quality and quantity, unavailable facilities, scattered houses and no provision of low cost housing implementation. It is imperative that appropriate housing policy should be put in place to address the urban housing problems necessitated by rapid urbanization in Nigeria.

1.3     Aim and Objective

          The main aim of this study is to examine the socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centre: A case study of Agbor-Delta State. In order to achieve the above stated aim, the following objectives were designed to guide the researcher; they are to:

  1. Identify the various socio-economic activities affected by housing demand in the area.
  2. Identify the role of housing in the socio-economic development of the area.
  3. Examine the role of government in solving the problems of housing in an urban center.
  4. Examine the factors militating against sustainable housing delivery in Agbor.
  5. Examine the quality of building materials used in the study area.
  6. To proffer solutions to address the housing problem in Agbor.

1.4     Research Hypothesis

          The following null hypotheses formulated will be tested in this study:

  1. There is no significant relationship between the income level of the residents of Agbor and the types of building unit in the area.
  2. There is no significant relationship between the socio-economic status of the residents of Agbor and housing demand in the area.

1.5     Significance of the Study

          The significance of the study lies in overall; socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centres: A case study of Agbor, Delta State. Urban housing problem has become so wide spread that it cannot be overlooked. It is to this effect that the study is aimed at informing the people of Agbor the extent to which housing demand have resulted to environmental problem such as housing congestion, overcrowding, land use congestion etc which have generated the creation of the slum settlement.

          Hence, effort must be put in place to control population explosion of cities and urban centres in order not to affect the housing delivery of the study area; the housing quality of Agbor is continued to be affected by the rapid increase in population and rapid migration of the rural dwellers to the cities in search for greener pasture. There may be development of slums around Agbor town due to housing congestion and other housing problems which will in turn affect not only the residents of Agbor but also their socio-economic activities thus hindering the soio-economic development of the area. It may also become a major socio-economic determinant in the study area. It is therefore hoped that the result of this research work will go an extra mile to control environmental problems such as housing congestion caused by increasing population of the urban centres resulting to the development and slums. The findings will also provide useful background information for future research in the contribution of geography towards nation building.

1.6     Research Methods

          The data for this study were obtained from two sources. The first which is the primary source involve reconnaissance survey, administration of questionnaire and oral interview which will be carried out to augment the secondary data.

          The secondary source of information will involve of secondary materials already existing which are in the form of maps, journal, magazine, articles, newspapers, internet, published and unpublished texts.

1.6.1  Method of Data Collection

          One hindered and fifty (150) questionnaires will be administered to the people of Agbor. The questionnaire will be the main research instrument used for the study and will be designed and structured to elicit information on socio-economic determinants of housing demand in an urban centre, using Agbor as a case study. The questionnaires will be administered to respondents by or hand ensure quick response and easy retrieval. The respondents will be approached in a friendly manner.

          The questionnaire will comprise of two (2) different sections which will be used to obtain information for this study. The first section of the questionnaire will be based solely on the respondents’ personal information. The second questionnaire will deal with socio-economic determinants of housing demand in urban centres.

          The researcher also divided Agbor into ten (10) zones and areas. The ten (10) zones which are listed below, were chosen out of the existing streets and quarters in Agbor because preliminary field survey indicated that the problems of housing demand was serious demand was more serious in these areas.

Those that are seriously affected by housing congestion are divided into ten (10) zones and areas, in which four (4), major streets were indentified and randomly selected, for the purpose of field survey and easy administration of questionnaires. In each of these zones/area, ----------- questionnaires were administered. Systematic techniques.

          The zones and streets in which the study area are divided include; Agbor-Abraka road, college junction, Agbor Obi, New Lagos-Asaba road, Old Lagos –Asaba road, Covent Street, Dr. White street, Morka by Owen street, Beleke street, and Cementery street.

1.6.2  Method of Data Analysis

          Information gathered will be synthesized during data analysis using simple statistical charts, such as the bar chart and histogram, while the person’s product moment correlation co-efficient will be used to test if truly there exist a significant relationship between the income level of the residents of Agbor and the quality of housing in the area and the hypotheses postulated for this study.

          The Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient will be used because it is a parametric correlations, which deals with intervals variable, each of which is normally distributed.

                   The Pearson’s product Moment correlation co-efficient (PPMCC) is presented mathematically as follows;

          r        =       N(xy)        -        (x) (y)

                             N(x2) – (x)2 x N(y2) – (y)2

where;

          r        =       Correlation co-efficient

          x        =       Dependent variable

          y        =       Independent variable

          n        =       Number of samples

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the Study

          The scope of this research work was strictly based on the socio-economic determinant of housing demand in an urban centre: A case study of Agbor, Delta State. And to offer suggestion (s) on the problems of housing.

          The scope of the study was initially designed to cover all the streets and quarters in Agbor. However, because of time and financial constraints, the scope was scaled down. In this regard only. Selected major areas were covered in this study.      

          These limitations notwithstanding, the data generated from this study and research findings will be of invaluable assistance in the management of housing problems.

1.8     Study Area

1.8.1  Location and Size

          Agbor lies between the geographical co-ordinate of latitudes 060161 0011N. and longitude 0600910011E of the Greenwich Meridian. Agbor is located in the south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria and in the Niger Delta region. Abgor is one of the biggest towns in Delta State. It is found in Ika south Local Government Area of Delta State. Neighborhoods in Agbor includes; Boji-Boji Agbor, Emuhu, Ekuku Agbor, Agbor Nta, Alihami, Alisemen, Alifekede, Alizomor and a lost of others.

          Geographically, the Ika speaking people are found in the North West of Delta state. They share borders linguistically in the west with the Edo speaking dialect, in the North, with the Ishan speakers in the East with the Aniocha Language speakers and in the south with the Ukwani speakers . the dialect which belong to the Igbo group (Williamson, 1986). Agbor came from the word “Gbon” meaning “develop” or “rise”.

1.8.2  Climate

          Agbor area experience warmest average temperature at March, 32.50c at noon while at December has its coldest with an average temperature of 20.80c at night. Agbor has no distinct temperature season.

          The temperature is relatively constant during the day. December is on average, the month with most sunshine. The wet season has a rainfall peak around the month of January. The climate type is classified as a tropical savanna.

1.8.3  Vegetation and Soil

          The vegetation of Agbor is preserved. The land scale is mostly covered with closed to open broad leaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. The soil in this area is high in acrisols, alisols, plinthosol (ac), acid soil with clay enriched lower horizon and low saturation of bases. The high yield of agricultural activities takes place in this area due to richness of the soil. Crops like yam, cassava, plantain, raffia palms, maize, cocoa yam, including vegetables.

1.8.4  Socio-Economic Activities

          Agbor is a commercial and institutional center. The inhabitants of this area are mostly engaged in commercial activities, while secondary and tertiary activities dominates the core city. The primary activities carried out in the area (which is the setting of raw materials through agricultural processes) covers all farming activities. The secondary activities include, the use of the raw materials been extracted to produce finished goods. The use of cassava in processing of garri, palm fruits product in making of palm oil and the branched (raffia palms) for making brooms. Also, tertiary activities are the economic activities which take place in the area. These include bead making, tailoring and carpentry.

          Also, education is not left out. Educational institutions range from nursery, primary, secondary and tertiary establishments. Others include school of nursing and the college of education, Agbor.

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