Hunziker and Krapf (1941:160) defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity”. Greg (2014) went on to give the definition of tourism as “the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the study at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes”. In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home. Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many countries. Its importance was recognized in the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 as “an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations.
The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is often used as a sign of distinction. Tourism is travel for recreation, leisure, religious, family or business purposes, usually for a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with international travel, but may also refer to travel to another place within the same country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people “travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purpose (UNTWO, 2012).
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country’s balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance. Tourism brings in large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting for 30% of the world’s trade of services, and 6% of overall exports of goods and services (UNWTO, 2012). Tourism also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with it. The service industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships, and taxi cabs, hospital services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues, and threatres. This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs, clothing etc.
Tourism involves some degree of interaction between residents (non-tourist) and temporary guest (tourist) to their area. Therefore, it will result in either positive or negative impacts. Any impacts from tourism that cause irritation amongst the local residents (non tourists) might lead to problems with the development and sustainability of the industry and reduce economic benefit. As for the temporary guest (the tourists) only tourism impacts that affect their travel experience and travel expenses might divert them to other destinations (Korstanje, 2007).
Thus, cultural tourist sites satisfy the tripartite concepts of conservation, full development, and utilization. This description matches the tourist sites in Delta State. However, little appreciation of them has led to their underdevelopment, underutilization and undervaluation, thereby robbing of their chances of meriting global first class list of tourism destinations.
Consequently, the primary aim of any destination management should be to gain a thorough knowledge of tourist and non tourist perceptions because understanding their attitudes towards the impacts and benefit of tourism implies to know the successful development, operation and sustainability of tourism industry (Leiper, 1983). More recently, creative tourism which was defined by Greg (2014) as tourism related to the active participation of travelers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshop and informal learning experiences, has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, Austria, France, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand (Theobald, 1998).
The growing interests of tourists in this new way to discover a culture regards particularly the operators and branding managers, at attentive to the possibility of attracting quality tourism, highlighting the intangible heritage (craft workshops, cooking classes, etc) and optimizing the use of existing infrastructure (for example, through the rent of halls and auditorium) (Korstanje, 2007).
The world Tourism Organization (UNTWO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4% (UNTWO, 2004). With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the most traded items on the internet (UNTWO, 2004). Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines etc), including small-scale operators, can sell their services directly (Lu, 2004; and Karanasios and Burgess, 2008). This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.
It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capital and the degree to which countries play in the global context (UNWTO, 2012). Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economics. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.
There has been a growing trend in tourism over the last few decades especially in Nigeria, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beach vacations, while others want more specialized holidays, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels. The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. The WHO estimated in 2009 that there are round half a million people on board aircraft at any given time. There have also been changes in lifestyle, for example some retirement-age people sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist services. Some sites (tourists and non tourists) have still not been harnessed till date. This has led the study to examine the development of tourism in Nigeria using Delta State as a study and therefore proffer lasting solutions and recommendation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years the development of tourist and cultural sites in Nigeria especially in Delta State have been very poor. This is because the main motivation for visiting a cultural site is based on the places’ heritage characteristics according to the tourists perceptions rather than on specific site attributes. Also, the interaction between tourists (non residents) and non tourists (residents) in Delta State have been very poor which have had huge negative impact on the development of tourism in these areas. This is because any impacts (negative or positive) from tourism that cause irritation amongst the local residents (non tourists) might lead to problems with the development and sustainability of the industry and reduce economic benefit. As for the tourists (non residents) any tourism impact that affects their travel experience and travel expenses might divert them to other destinations. These have been the major problem faced by the communities in Nigeria especially in Delta State which have led tourists to divert to other States for tourist sight due to poor interaction among tourist and non tourist in the cultural sites.
Although, efforts have been made by the government and individual to change perceptions and attitudes between the hosts (non tourists’) and tourists in the cultural sites towards tourism development in Delta State in order to increase understanding concerning cultural based demand and supply in these areas, all attempts made so far have prove abortive and this has hindered the development of tourism in the areas, and hence efforts to ensure satisfaction with the tourism experience have not been achieved.
The government on their part has also failed to develop and harness tourist sites and tourism relies heavily upon the goodwill of the local residents (non tourists'), their support is essential for its development, successful operation and sustainability of the industry in the long term. It is pertinent to note here that tourists are more favourbly attracted by destinations in which the residents (non residents) are more friendly, honest and hospitable. Therefore, the perceptions of the non tourist must increasingly be considered and also be given an active role, participating in the planning and management of local tourism development.
On the other hand, it is critical that tourists’ perception as well as factors influencing existing perception of cultural sites are investigated and included in future management plans to achieve full development. Due to the dual nature of development, cultural tourist sites management are faced with challenges that arise from meeting both development requirements and tourist expectation.
One area where the Nigeria economy is not doing well is tourism. This is clear in the annual Gross National Income and Gross Domestic Product of the country as tourism has only contributed little percentage to the country’s economy when compared with petroleum which have contributed over 98% to the country's GDP (Delta State Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2015). This is as a result of the numerous untapped natural resources and tourist sites and inaccessibility of some tourist and non tourist sites in Nigeria (Ekeh, 2005).
It is of no doubt today, that tourism has played a key role in the society and its importance cannot be over looked. It has become a vital part of the economy and fourth largest industry in the global economy, delivering not only economic benefit to individuals, organization and government but also has the capacity to deliver peace and prosperity, especially in the developing countries of the diverse tourism possibilities and rich cultural heritage in Nigeria. Though not much have been done especially to these cultural sites in Delta State to fully develop and successfully operate and sustain them into the global tourism industry. This can be accounted for by these cultural sites management failure in the course of planning to consider properly attributes which are used to measure the satisfaction and effects of/on tourists and non tourists (Giriah and Prayer, 2009).
Therefore, a study on the cross-cultural impacts between hosts (non tourists’) and incoming tourists’ related to their perceptions towards tourism development is important in Delta State, in order to increase understanding concerning culture based demand and supply. As a result, tourism products and service in these destinations may be tailored to fulfill tourist needs and ensure satisfaction with tourism which may develop less adverse impact on non tourist (residents) and host communities, and become more developed and sustainable over time.
Since the 1970s, non tourist (residents/hosts) attitudes and perceptions toward tourism impacts on their community has been broadly analyzed by developers of the tourism industry, policy makers, and academicians (McGehee and Andereck, 2004, Andreck and Vogt, 2000, Lankford, 1994). Hence, the value of tourist perception study is not only justified in order to identify factors that influence attitudes and behaviours but it is often times closely connected to full development of tourism industries (Houlot, 1961).
All attempts by the management of these cultural sites, to fully develop/harness and to boost utilization and successful operation, sustain and to mainstream, the Delta State tourist sites, into global first class tourism destination, have proven to be unsuccessful as evidence in their level of development and attractions. This is as a result of their failure to take into consideration the proper examination and assessment of how the full development, successful operation, and sustainability of these cultural sites is affected by tourists and non tourists (residents) perception. Thus, the need for this study to proffer long lasting solutions and possible way forward to the aforementioned problems associated with the development of tourism in Nigeria: A case study of Delta State.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to examine the development of tourism in Nigeria: A case study of Delta State.
However, the specific objectives of this study include the following.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following null hypotheses will be tested in this research work.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of great relevance to the tourist, non tourist and host communities, tourism industry managers, government and as well to the cultural sites, as the study will, to some extent, solve the problem of lack of literature (information) on how to fully develop, successfully operate and sustain Delta State tourist/cultural sites. Although the recommendation it will provide from source and analyze information/data (both primary and secondary) on tourist and non tourist perception towards the full development of these cultural sites will go a long way in addressing these problems, the study will therefore enumerate their challenges (tourist and non tourist) and satisfy their perceived needs and benefits.
Also, the study will reveal the pull factors that will draw the attention or encourage the government, the host communities and public-private partnership to invest or involve directly or indirectly in the development, management and sustainability of these cultural sites and its reward is high income due to increase in destination loyalties.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of effective coverage the study will be limited to examination and assessment of how the development, successful operation and sustainability of Delta State tourist/cultural sites, are affected by tourist and non tourist attitudes and as well the major factors that influence their awareness attitudes and perception.
The study will also examine the development of tourism in Nigeria using Delta State as a case study, and also the proper management of these cultural sites. It will equally identify the magnitude of the relationship between the problems of tourism development and the factors that influence the development of tourist/cultural sites in Delta State.
Furthermore, it will investigate how aware are people of the importance of the full development, successful operation and sustainability of tourist and non tourist with these cultural sites environment.
Finally, it will explore how community economic dependence on the tourism industry affects residents attitudes and perceptions towards tourism development and sustainability of these tourist site since there is need to preserve and maintain the natural environment and qualities of these cultural sites.
1.7 STUDY AREA
1.7.1 Location and Size
Delta State is located in the southern part of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. Delta State lies approximately within latitude 050 001N and 060 301N of the equator and longitude 050 001E and 050 451N of the Greenwich meridian. It is bounded by Edo State in the North, Bayelsa State in the South-East, Anambra State in the East and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Delta as a state has experienced rapid increase in size over the years, due to the presence of various tourist sites such as the River Ethiope Source, shrine, hotels, bars, beach and restaurant. This attracts people from surrounding area, to itself, because of its tourist attraction thus resulting to the rapid development of the area. The covers an area of 1,920km2.
Fig 1: Map of Delta State Showing the Study Areas
Fig 2: Map of Delta State Showing the study areas
1.7.2 Climate and Vegetation
Delta State fall under the equatorial rainforest belt and rainforest climate. The areas enjoy the tropical environment of tropical rainforest climate (AF) of Koppen in 1918 and the wet equatorial climate of Strahler in 1969 classification of climate. The climate of these areas is influenced by two air masses, the tropical maritime air mass and tropical continental air mass. These regions are of the humid tropical climate with high temperature between the months of November and April with variation in temperature between 250C -300C between April and October. The regions have an annual temperature of about 30.6oc with a monthly mean temperature of about 300C from September and 31.10c in June and July with an annual range in temperature between 30c and 50c. It is discovered in repeated studies that the average rainfall distribution in these regions is about 2500mm-3000mm annually. These regions experience rainfall throughout the year owing to its location in the Niger Delta zone with the continual monsoon wind blowing from the Atlantic ocean and also a continuous shift in the Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) due to the equatorial rainforest which is evergreen forest and consist of three canopies of trees which are; the upper layer which is about 40m tall and the lower layer which is about 30m in height.
The three major vegetation types in Delta State are the tropical rainforest belt, temperate grasslands, and the grass land. Vegetation remains one of the key factor which affect the climate of these regions. Vegetation provides lumbering, herbs for medicinal purpose, food, income and employment to the people of these regions.
1.7.3 Relief and Drainage System
Delta State are drained by two Rivers; River Ethiope and the Forcados. Delta State and its environ is specifically drained by River Ethiope and the Atlantic Ocean which empty its water shield into the River Niger Basin and terminates at the Atlantic Ocean. Most communities in Delta State are located in the upland in between these rivers the drainage pattern of River Ethiope, Atlantic Ocean and Forcados is dentritic in nature. These rivers serves as recreational and tourist centres, major source of water to the populace, mining sites for sand stones, religious activities and agricultural activities just to mention but a few.
Delta State lies within the low land area of Nigeria with 50m above sea level. Also, it is only about 45km from the coast of Nigeria. These regions have a low relief of gentle hilly flat surface with an Anticline nature i.e having an elevation of less than or equal to 60 which in the north shell can also be linked in classification with the interior coastal landmass of western Nigeria.
1.7.4 Geology and Soils
Delta State is predominantly characterized by sedimentary rock. These regions lie in southern most sedimentary basins in Nigeria.
Delta State have similar soil type, texture and structure since they are both in the riverine areas of the lowland region. The soil in these region is loamy in nature with muddy soil which varies from coarse through medium to fine grained soils. The soils sometimes can be said to be loamy and clayey and greenish and reddish brown in colour and then to brown. The light grayish colouration characterizes the entire loamy portion of the soil, while the reddish brown colouration depicts the presence of iron oxide in the soil. The colouration depicts the availability of mineral matters and moisture. Delta State is well structured in relation to its type in terms of grain size, well spaced which greatly influences the rate of percolation and capillarity, aeration and the rate of evaporation.
1.7.5 Socio-economic activities
The socio-economic activities in Delta State varies from trading, fishing, farming to commercial businesses which have boost the economy of the area through internally generated revenue. The Delta State tourism region is one of the most fascinating tourist site in Nigeria where economic activities carried out in the region is mostly from these tourists sites which is strategically located in a tourist attraction environment where people from far and near come for sightseeing thereby creating employment, and boasting the economy of the regions. It is of no doubt that the tourist site in Delta State have really improved the economy of the State and the country at large as tourism plays a key role in the development of any region.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work was limited by a number of factors, among which are finance, time and physical constraints, language barrier, inaccessibility to remote areas and flooded areas and problem of inadequate (unavailability) of secondary sources of data (textbooks, magazine, e-materials, journal etc) on this research topic as most materials were not readily available as at when need. But these did not deprive the researcher from reaching dependable results.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Environment: The surrounding around man in space
Experiential Travel: An approach to traveling which focuses on experimenting a country, city or particular place by connecting to its history, people, food and culture.
Dark Tourism: It involves visits to dark sites
Social Tourism: This is the extension of the benefits of tourism to disadvantage people who otherwise could not afford to travel for their education of recreation.
Cultural tourism: This is related to the participation of tourist/travelers in the culture of the resident/host community, through interactive seminars and informal learning experience.
Creative tourism: This is tourism related to the active participation of travelers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshop and informal learning experiences
Sustainable Development: This implies meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987).
Tourism: This is defined in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
Destination: This movement of people from their home to a place outside their home to carryout activities.
Perception: The ability to understand the true nature of something. It is also the ability to have a positive or negative view toward a particular thing or phenomena.